Output generated by LISFLOOD

Default LISFLOOD output

LISFLOOD can generate a wide variety of output. Output is generated as either maps or time series (PCRaster format, which can be visualised with PCRaster’s ‘aguila’ application; or as NetCDF). Reporting of output files can be switched on and off using options in the LISFLOOD settings file. Also, a number of output files are specific to other optional modules, such as the simulation of reservoirs. The following table lists all the output time series that are reported by default (note that the file names can always be changed by the user, although this is not recommended):

Table: LISFLOOD default output time series.

Description Units File name
RATE VARIABLES AT GAUGES    
$^{1,2}$ channel discharge $\frac{m^3} {s}$ dis.tss
NUMERICAL CHECKS    
$^2$ cumulative mass balance error $m^3$ mbError.tss
$^2$ cumulative mass balance error, expressed as mm water slice (average over catchment) $mm$ mbErrorMm.tss
$^2$ number of sub-steps needed for channel routing - NoSubStepsChannel.tss
$^2$ number of sub-steps needed for gravity-based soil moisture routine - steps.tss

$^1$ Output only if option ‘InitLisflood’ = 1 (pre-run)
$^2$ Output only if option ‘InitLisflood’ = 0

To speed up the pre-run and to prevent that results are taken from the pre-run, all additional output is disabled if option ‘InitLisflood’ = 1 is chosen. With ‘InitLisflood’ = 1 the output is limited to dis.tss, lzavin.map, lzavin_forest.map and some other initial maps if additional option like e.g. the double kinematic wave is chosen.

In addition to these time series, by default LISFLOOD reports maps of all state variables at the last timestep of a simulation. These maps can be used to define the initial conditions of a succeeding simulation. For instance, you can do a 1-year simulation on a daily time step, and use the ‘end maps’ of this simulation to simulate a flood event using an hourly time step. The table below lists all these maps. Note that some state variables are valid for the whole pixel, whereas others are only valid for a sub-domain of each pixel. This is indicated in the last column of the table.

Table: LISFLOOD default state variable output maps. These maps can be used to define the initial conditions of another simulation.

Description Units File name Domain
AVERAGE RECHARGE MAP (for lower groundwater zone) (option InitLisflood)      
$^1$ average inflow to lower zone $\frac{mm}{ timestep}$ lzavin.map other fraction
$^1$ average inflow to lower zone (forest) $\frac{mm}{ timestep}$ lzavin_forest.map forest fraction
INITIAL CONDITION MAPS at defined time steps (option repStateMaps)      
$^2$ waterdepth $mm$ wdepth00.xxx whole pixel
$^2$ channel cross-sectional area $m^2$ chcro000.xxx channel
$^2$ days since last rain variable $days$ dslr0000.xxx other pixel
$^2$ snow cover zone A $mm$ scova000.xxx snow zone A
($1/3^{rd}$ pixel)
$^2$ snow cover zone B $mm$ scovb000.xxx snow zone B
($1/3^{rd}$ pixel)
$^2$ snow cover zone C $mm$ scovc000.xxx snow zone C
$(1/3^{rd}$ pixel)
$^2$ frost index $\frac{°C}{days}$ frost000.xxx other pixel
$^2$ cumulative interception $mm$ cumi0000.xxx other pixel
$^2$ soil moisture upper layer $\frac{mm^3}{mm^3}$ thtop000.xxx other fraction
$^2$ soil moisture lower layer $\frac{mm^3}{mm^3}$ thsub000.xxx other fraction
$^2$ water in lower zone $mm$ lz000000.xxx other fraction
$^2$ water in upper zone $mm$ uz000000.xxx other fraction
$^2$ days since last rain variable (forest) $days$ dslF0000.xxx forest pixel
$^2$ cumulative interception (forest) $mm$ cumF0000.xxx forest pixel
$^2$ soil moisture upper layer (forest) $\frac{mm^3}{mm^3}$ thFt0000.xxx forest fraction
$^2$ soil moisture lower layer (forest) $\frac{mm^3}{mm^3}$ thFs0000.xxx forest fraction
$^2$ water in lower zone (forest) $mm$ lzF00000.xxx forest fraction
$^2$ water in upper zone (forest) $mm$ uzF00000.xxx forest fraction
$^2$ water in depression storage (sealed) $mm$ cseal000.xxx sealed fraction

$^1$ Output only if option ‘InitLisflood’ = 1 (pre-run)
$^2$ Output only if option ‘InitLisflood’ = 0

Additional output

Apart from the default output, the model can –optionally- generate some additional time series and maps. Roughly this additional output falls in either of the following categories:

Time series

  1. Time series with values of model state variables at user-defined locations (sites); reporting of these time series can be activated using the option repStateSites=1. Note that ‘sites’ can be either individual pixels or larger areas (e.g. catchments, administrative areas, and so on). In case of larger areas the model reports the average value for each respective area.
  2. Time series with values of model rate variables at user-defined locations (sites); reporting of these time series can be activated using the option repRateSites=1
  3. Time series with values of meteorological input variables, averaged over the area upstream of each gauge location; reporting of these time series can be activated using the option repMeteoUpsGauges=1
  4. Time series with values of model state variables, averaged over area upstream of each gauge location; reporting of these time series can be activated using the option repStateUpsGauges=1
  5. Time series with values of model rate variables, averaged over area upstream of each gauge location; reporting of these time series can be activated using the option repRateUpsGauges=1
  6. Time series that are specific to other options (e.g. simulation of reservoirs).

Maps

  1. Maps of discharge at each time step; reporting of these maps can be activated using the option repDischargeMaps=1
  2. Maps with values of driving meteorological values at each time step
  3. Maps with values of model rate variables at each time step
  4. Maps that are specific to other options (e.g. simulation of reservoirs).

In addition, some additional maps and time series may be reported for debugging purposes. In general these are not of any interest to the LISFLOOD user, so they remain undocumented here.

Note that the options repStateUpsGauges, repRateUpsGauges and repDischargeMaps tend to slow down the execution of the model quite dramatically. For applications of the model where performance is critical (e.g. automated calibration runs), we advise to keep them switched off, if possible.

Note again the domains for which variables are valid: all rate variables are reported as pixel-average values. Soil moisture and groundwater storage are reported for the permeable fraction of each pixel only. The reported snow cover is the average of the snow depths in snow zones A, B and C.

By default, the names of the reported discharge maps start with the prefix ‘dis’ and end with the time step number (the naming conventions are identical to the ones used for the input maps with meteorological variables, which is explained in the annex on LISFLOOD input files. The long table below summarises all options to report additional output maps.

Time series

Table: LISFLOOD default output time series.

Description Units Settings variable File name**
RATE VARIABLES AT GAUGES      
$^{1,2}$ channel discharge $\frac{m^3}{s}$ disTS dis.tss
NUMERICAL CHECKS      
$^2$ cumulative mass balance error $m^3$ WaterMassBalanceTSS mbError.tss
$^2$ cumulative mass balance error, expressed as mm water slice (average over catchment) $mm$ MassBalanceMMTSS mbErrorMm.tss
$^2$ number of sub-steps needed for channel routing - NoSubStepsChan NoSubStepsChannel.tss
$^2$ number of sub-steps needed for gravity-based soil moisture routine - StepsSoilTS steps.tss

$^1$ Output only if option ‘InitLisflood’ = 1 (pre-run) $^2$ Output only if option ‘InitLisflood’ = 0

Table: LISFLOOD optional output time series (only ‘InitLisflood’ = 0).

Description Units Settings variable Default name
STATE VARIABLES AT SITES (option repStateSites)      
depth of water on soil surface $mm$ WaterDepthTS wDepth.tss
depth of snow cover on soil surface (pixel-average) $mm$ SnowCoverTS snowCover.tss
depth of interception storage $mm$ CumInterceptionTS cumInt.tss
soil moisture content upper layer $\frac{mm^3}{mm^3}$ Theta1TS th1a.tss
soil moisture content lower layer $\frac{mm^3}{mm^3}$ Theta2TS th1b.tss
soil moisture layer 2 $\frac{mm^3}{mm^3}$ Theta3TS th2.tss
storage in upper groundwater zone $mm$ UZTS uz.tss
storage in lower groundwater zone $mm$ LZTS lz.tss
number of days since last rain $days$ DSLRTS dslr.tss
frost index $\frac{°C}{days}$ FrostIndexTS frost.tss
RATE VARIABLES AT SITES (option repRateSites)      
rain (excluding snow) $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ RainTS rain.tss
Snow $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ SnowTS snow.tss
snow melt $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ SnowmeltTS snowMelt.tss
actual evaporation $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ ESActTS esAct.tss
actual transpiration $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ TaTS tAct.tss
rainfall interception $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ InterceptionTS interception.tss
evaporation of intercepted water $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ EWIntTS ewIntAct.tss
leaf drainage $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ LeafDrainageTS leafDrainage.tss
infiltration $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ InfiltrationTS infiltration.tss
preferential (bypass) flow $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ PrefFlowTS prefFlow.tss
percolation upper to lower soil layer $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ PercolationTS dTopToSub.tss
percolation lower soil layer to subsoil $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ SeepSubToGWTS dSubToUz.tss
surface runoff $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ SurfaceRunoffTS surfaceRunoff.tss
outflow from upper zone $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ UZOutflowTS qUz.tss
outflow from lower zone $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ LZOutflowTS qLz.tss
total runoff $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ TotalRunoffTS totalRunoff.tss
percolation from upper to lower zone $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ GwPercUZLZTS percUZLZ.tss
loss from lower zone $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ GwLossTS loss.tss
TIME SERIES, AVERAGE UPSTREAM OF GAUGES      
METEOROLOGICAL INPUT VARIABLES (option repMeteoUpsGauges)      
precipitation $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ PrecipitationAvUpsTS precipUps.tss
potential reference evapotranspiration $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ ETRefAvUpsTS etUps.tss
potential evaporation from soil $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ ESRefAvUpsTS esUps.tss
potential open water evaporation $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ EWRefAvUpsTS ewUps.tss
average daily temperature $°C$ TavgAvUpsTS tAvgUps.tss
STATE VARIABLES (option repStateUpsGauges)      
depth of water on soil surface $mm$ WaterDepthAvUpsTS wdepthUps.tss
depth of snow cover on $mm$ SnowCoverAvUpsTS snowCoverUps.tss
depth of interception storage $mm$ CumInterceptionAvUpsTS cumInterceptionUps.tss
soil moisture upper layer $\frac{mm^3}{mm^3}$ Theta1AvUpsTS th1aAvUps.tss
soil moisture lower layer $\frac{mm^3}{mm^3}$ Theta2AvUpsTS th1bAvUps.tss
soil moisture layer 2 $\frac{mm^3}{mm^3}$ Theta3AvUpsTS th2AvUps.tss
groundwater upper zone $mm$ UZAvUpsTS uzUps.tss
groundwater lower zone $mm$ LZAvUpsTS lzUps.tss
number of days since last rain $days$ DSLRAvUpsTS dslrUps.tss
frost index $\frac{°C}{days}$ FrostIndexAvUpsTS frostUps.tss
RATE VARIABLES (option repRateUpsGauges)      
rain (excluding snow) $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ RainAvUpsTS rainUps.tss
snow $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ SnowAvUpsTS snowUps.tss
snow melt $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ SnowmeltAvUpsTS snowMeltUps.tss
actual evaporation $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ ESActAvUpsTS esActUps.tss
actual transpiration $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ TaAvUpsTS tActUps.tss
rainfall interception $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ InterceptionAvUpsTS interceptionUps.tss
evaporation of intercepted water $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ EWIntAvUpsTS ewIntActUps.tss
leaf drainage $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ LeafDrainageAvUpsTS leafDrainageUps.tss
infiltration $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ InfiltrationAvUpsTS infiltrationUps.tss
preferential (bypass) flow $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ PrefFlowAvUpsTS prefFlowUps.tss
percolation upper to lower soil layer $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ PercolationAvUpsTS dTopToSubUps.tss
percolation lower soil layer to subsoil $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ SeepSubToGWAvUpsTS dSubToUzUps.tss
surface runoff $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ SurfaceRunoffAvUpsTS surfaceRunoffUps.tss
outflow from upper zone $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ UZOutflowAvUpsTS qUzUps.tss
outflow from lower zone $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ LZOutflowAvUpsTS qLzUps.tss
total runoff $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ TotalRunoffAvUpsTS totalRunoffUps.tss
percolation upper to lower zone $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ GwPercUZLZAvUpsTS percUZLZUps.tss
loss from lower zone $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ GwLossTS lossUps.tss
WATER LEVEL IN CHANNEL (option repWaterLevelTs)      
water level in channel $m$ (above channel bottom) WaterLevelTS waterLevel.tss
OUTPUT RELATED TO LOWER ZONE INITIALISATION (option repLZAvInflowSites and repLZAvInflowUpsGauges)      
average inflow into lower zone $\frac{mm^3}{day}$ LZAvInflowTS lzAvIn.tss
average inflow into lower zone $\frac{mm^3}{day}$ LZAvInflowAvUpsTS lzAvInUps.tss

Maps

Table: LISFLOOD default output maps.

Description Units File name Domain
AVERAGE RECHARGE MAP (for lower groundwater zone) (option InitLisflood)      
$^1$ average inflow to lower zone $\frac{mm^3}{day}$ lzavin.map other fraction
$^1$ average inflow to lower zone (forest) $\frac{mm^3}{day}$ lzavin_forest.map forest fraction
INITIAL CONDITION MAPS at defined time steps (option repStateMaps)      
$^2$ waterdepth $mm$ wdepth00.xxx whole pixel
$^2$ channel cross-sectional area $m^2$ chcro000.xxx channel
$^2$ days since last rain variable $days$ dslr0000.xxx other pixel
$^2$ snow cover zone A $mm$ scova000.xxx snow zone A (1/3rd pixel)
$^2$ snow cover zone B $mm$ scovb000.xxx snow zone B (1/3rd pixel)
$^2$ snow cover zone C $mm$ scovc000.xxx snow zone C (1/3rd pixel)
$^2$ frost index $\frac{°C}{days}$ frost000.xxx other pixel
$^2$ cumulative interception $mm$ cumi0000.xxx other pixel
$^2$ soil moisture upper layer $\frac{mm^3}{mm^3}$ thtop000.xxx other fraction
$^2$ soil moisture lower layer $\frac{mm^3}{mm^3}$ thsub000.xxx other fraction
$^2$ water in lower zone $mm$ lz000000.xxx other fraction
$^2$ water in upper zone $mm$ uz000000.xxx other fraction
$^2$ days since last rain variable (forest) $days$ dslF0000.xxx forest pixel
$^2$ cumulative interception (forest) $mm$ cumF0000.xxx forest pixel
$^2$ soil moisture upper layer (forest) $\frac{mm^3}{mm^3}$ thFt0000.xxx forest fraction
$^2$ soil moisture lower layer (forest) $\frac{mm^3}{mm^3}$ thFs0000.xxx forest fraction
$^2$ water in lower zone (forest) $mm$ lzF00000.xxx forest fraction
$^2$ water in upper zone (forest) $mm$ uzF00000.xxx forest fraction
$^2$ water in depression storage (sealed) $mm$ cseal000.xxx sealed fraction

$^1$ Output only if option ‘InitLisflood’ = 1 (pre-run) $^2$ Output only if option ‘InitLisflood’ = 0

Table: LISFLOOD optional output maps (only ‘InitLisflood’ = 0) .

Description Option Units Settings variable Prefix
DISCHARGE AND WATER LEVEL        
discharge repDischargeMaps $\frac{m^3}{s}$ DischargeMaps dis
water level repWaterLevelMaps $m$ (above channel bottom) WaterLevelMaps wl
METEOROLOGICAL INPUT VARIABLES        
precipitation repPrecipitationMaps $mm$ PrecipitationMaps pr
potential reference evapotranspiration repETRefMaps $mm$ ETRefMaps et
potential evaporation from soil repESRefMaps $mm$ ESRefMaps es
potential open water evaporation repEWRefMaps $mm$ EWRefMaps ew
average daily temperature repTavgMaps $mm$ TavgMaps tav
STATEVARIABLES        
depth of water on soil surface repWaterDepthMaps $mm$ WaterDepthMaps wdep
depth of snow cover on soil surface repSnowCoverMaps $mm$ SnowCoverMaps scov
depth of interception storage repCumInterceptionMaps $mm$ CumInterceptionMaps
CumInterceptionForestMaps
cumi
cumF
soil moisture content upper layer repTheta1Maps $\frac{mm^3}{mm^3}$ Theta1Maps
Theta1ForestMaps
thtop
thFt
soil moisture content lower layer repTheta2Maps $\frac{mm^3}{mm^3}$ Theta2Maps
Theta2ForestMaps
thsub
thFs
storage in upper groundwater zone repUZMaps $mm$ UZMaps
UZForestMaps
uz
uzF
storage in lower groundwater zone repLZMaps $mm$ LZMaps
LZForestMaps
lz
lzF
number of days since last rain repDSLRMaps $days$ DSLRMaps
DSLRForestMaps
dslr
dslF
frost index repFrostIndexMaps $\frac{°C}{days}$ FrostIndexMaps frost
RATE VARIABLES        
rain (excluding snow) repRainMaps $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ RainMaps rain
snow repSnowMaps $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ SnowMaps snow
snow melt repSnowMeltMaps $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ SnowMeltMaps smelt
actual evaporation repESActMaps $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ ESActMaps esact
actual transpiration repTaMaps $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ TaMaps tact
rainfall interception repInterceptionMaps $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ InterceptionMaps int
evaporation of intercepted water repEWIntMaps $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ EWIntMaps ewint
leaf drainage repLeafDrainageMaps $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ LeafDrainageMaps ldra
infiltration repInfiltrationMaps $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ InfiltrationMaps inf
preferential (bypass) flow repPrefFlowMaps $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ PrefFlowMaps pflow
percolation upper to lower soil layer repPercolationMaps $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ PercolationMaps to2su
percolation lower soil layer to subsoil repSeepSubToGWMaps $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ SeepSubToGWMaps su2gw
surface runoff repSurfaceRunoffMaps $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ SurfaceRunoffMaps srun
outflow from upper zone repUZOutflowMaps $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ UZOutflowMaps quz
outflow from lower zone repLZOutflowMaps $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ LZOutflowMaps qlz
total runoff repTotalRunoffMaps $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ TotalRunoffMaps trun
percolation upper to lower zone repGwPercUZLZMaps $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ GwPercUZLZMaps uz2lz
loss from lower zone repGwLossMaps $\frac{mm}{timestep}$ GwLossMaps loss

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